It is next to impossible to perform operando experiments without prior detailed atom scale information on the model catalyst, due to the complexity of the gas-surface interaction and the data interpretation. We will therefore apply our standard UHV surface science techniques available to us such as Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM), High Resolution Core Level Spectroscopy (HRCLS), Low-Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED), SXRD, Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS), Temperature-Programmed Desorption (TPD) and Reflection Absorption Infra-Red Spectroscopy (RAIRS) before entering the realm of operando environments.
 Growth of ultra-thin iron oxide films on Ag(100)
L. R. Merte, M. Shipilin, S. Ataran, S. Blomberg, C. Zhang, A. Mikkelsen, J. Gustafson, and E. Lundgren
J. Chem. Phys. C 119 (2015) 2572